, Chisom v. Roemer :: 501 U.S. 380 (1991) :: US LAW US Supreme Court Center

Chisom v. Roemer :: 501 U.S. 380 (1991) :: US LAW US Supreme Court Center

    U.S. Supreme Court

    Chisom v. Roemer, 501 U.S. 380 (1991)

    Chisom v. Roemer

    Nos. 90-757, ninety-1032

    Argued April 12, 1991

    Decided June 20, 1991

    501 U.S. 380

    Syllabus

    The Louisiana Supreme Court consists of seven members, two of whom are elected at-big from one multi-member district, with the the rest elected from unmarried-member districts. Petitioners in No. 90-757 constitute a class of black registered voters in Orleans Parish, that's the most important of the four parishes in the multi-member district and incorporates approximately half of of the district s registered voters. Although multiple-half of Orleans Parish s registered voters are black, over 3-fourths of the voters within the different three parishes are white. Petitioners filed an movement within the District Court towards respondents, the Governor and nation officials, alleging that the method of electing justices from their district impermissibly dilutes minority vote casting power in violation of, inter alia, § 2 of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. As amended in 1982, § 2(a) prohibits the imposition of a voting qualification or prerequisite or trendy, practice, or technique that "effects in a denial or abridgement of the right . . . to vote as a result of race or colour," and § 2(b) states that the check for determining the legality of one of these exercise is whether, "based totally at the totality of occasions," minority citizens

    "have much less possibility than different individuals of the citizens to take part within the political technique and to opt for representatives in their desire."

    (Emphasis added.) The United States, petitioner in No. ninety-1032, in the end intervened to help petitioners claims, and the District Court ultimately dominated in opposition to petitioners on the deserves. However, the Court of Appeals sooner or later remanded the case with directions to push aside the grievance in mild of its in advance en banc decision in League of United Latin American Citizens Council No. 444 v. Clements, 914 F.2nd 620 (LULAC), that judicial elections aren't blanketed below § 2 of the Act as amended. There, the court distinguished between claims concerning the opportunity to take part within the political system and claims related to the opportunity to elect representatives of minority voters desire, retaining that § 2 carried out to judicial elections with appreciate to claims within the first class, but that,

    Page 501 U. S. 381

    due to the fact judges are not "representatives," the usage of that term excludes judicial elections from claims in the 2nd class.

    Held: Judicial elections are blanketed with the aid of § 2 as amended. Pp. 501 U. S. 391-404.

    (a) As firstly enacted, § 2 became coextensive with the Fifteenth Amendment, and it is undisputed that it applied to judicial elections. The 1982 amendment extended § 2 s protection by means of adopting a consequences check, consequently putting off the requirement that evidence of discriminatory cause is essential to show a § 2 violation, and by means of including § 2(b), which affords steerage about the way to practice that check. Had Congress additionally supposed to exclude judicial elections, it'd have made its cause explicit in the statute or identified or stated it in the amendment s strangely vast legislative records. Pp. 501 U. S. 391-396.

    (b) The results check is relevant to all § 2 claims. The statutory text and this Court s instances foreclose LULAC s reading of § 2. If the word "representatives" positioned a restriction on § 2 s coverage for judicial elections, it might exclude all claims involving such elections, for the statute calls for that each one claims must allege an abridgement of the opportunity both to participate within the political technique and to elect representatives of 1 s choice. Thus, in preference to developing two separate and awesome rights, the statute identifies two inextricably related factors of a plaintiff s burden of proof. See, e.g., White v. Regester, 412 U. S. 755. Pp. 501 U. S. 396-398.

    (c) The phrase "representatives" describes the winners of consultant, popular elections, such as elected judges. Although LULAC efficiently stated that judges want no longer be elected, when they may be, it appears both affordable and sensible to characterize the winners as representatives of the districts in which they live and run. The legislative history provides no guide for the arguments that the time period "representatives" consists of most effective legislative and government officers, or that Congress could have chosen the phrase "applicants" had it meant to use the vote dilution prohibition to judicial elections. Pp. 501 U. S. 398-401.

    (d) Adopting respondents view of coverage would lead to the anomalous result that a State included by using § 5 of the Act might be precluded from enforcing a new vote casting procedure having discriminatory outcomes with recognize to judicial elections, Clark v. Roemer, 500 U. S. 646, however a in addition discriminatory device already in vicinity couldn't be challenged underneath § 2. P. 501 U. S. 401-402.

    (e) That the only-person, one-vote rule is inapplicable to judicial elections, Wells v. Edwards, 409 U. S. 1095, does not suggest that judicial elections are absolutely immune from vote dilution claims. Wells rejected a constitutional declare and, hence, has no relevance to a correct interpretation of this statute, which became enacted to provide additional protection

    Page 501 U. S. 382

    for voting rights no longer properly blanketed via the Constitution itself. Cf. City of Rome v. United States, 446 U. S. 156, 446 U. S. 172-183. Pp. 501 U. S. 402-403.

    917 F.2d 187 (C.A.5, 1990), reversed and remanded.

    STEVENS, J., brought the opinion of the Court, wherein WHITE, MARSHALL, BLACKMUN, O CONNOR, and SOUTER, JJ., joined. SCALIA, J., filed a dissenting opinion, in which REHNQUIST, C.J., and KENNEDY, J., joined, put up, p. 501 U. S. 404. KENNEDY, J., filed a dissenting opinion, publish, p. 501 U. S. 418.

    Page 501 U. S. 383

    U.S. Supreme Court

    Chisom v. Roemer, 501 U.S. 380 (1991)

    Chisom v. Roemer

    Nos. 90-757, ninety-1032

    Argued April 12, 1991

    Decided June 20, 1991

    501 U.S. 380

    CERTIORARI TO THE UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR

    THE FIFTH CIRCUIT

    Syllabus

    The Louisiana Supreme Court consists of seven participants, of whom are elected at-big from one multi-member district, with the remainder elected from single-member districts. Petitioners in No. 90-757 represent a class of black registered electorate in Orleans Parish, that's the most important of the 4 parishes within the multi-member district and consists of approximately half of the district s registered voters. Although multiple-1/2 of Orleans Parish s registered citizens are black, over 3-fourths of the voters within the other 3 parishes are white. Petitioners filed an movement in the District Court in opposition to respondents, the Governor and state officials, alleging that the approach of electing justices from their district impermissibly dilutes minority voting electricity in violation of, inter alia, § 2 of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. As amended in 1982, § 2(a) prohibits the imposition of a vote casting qualification or prerequisite or popular, exercise, or system that "effects in a denial or abridgement of the proper . . . to vote resulting from race or color," and § 2(b) states that the check for determining the legality of the sort of exercise is whether, "primarily based at the totality of circumstances," minority citizens

    "have much less possibility than other individuals of the electorate to take part inside the political procedure and to elect representatives in their desire."

    (Emphasis added.) The United States, petitioner in No. ninety-1032, ultimately intervened to guide petitioners claims, and the District Court ultimately dominated towards petitioners at the deserves. However, the Court of Appeals finally remanded the case with guidelines to dismiss the criticism in light of its earlier en banc choice in League of United Latin American Citizens Council No. 444 v. Clements, 914 F.2nd 620 (LULAC), that judicial elections aren't included below § 2 of the Act as amended. There, the courtroom distinguished between claims concerning the possibility to participate inside the political method and claims related to the opportunity to decide on representatives of minority voters desire, keeping that § 2 implemented to judicial elections with recognize to claims inside the first class, but that,

    Page 501 U. S. 381

    due to the fact judges are not "representatives," the use of that time period excludes judicial elections from claims inside the 2nd category.

    Held: Judicial elections are included by § 2 as amended. Pp. 501 U. S. 391-404.

    (a) As at the beginning enacted, § 2 become coextensive with the Fifteenth Amendment, and it is undisputed that it carried out to judicial elections. The 1982 amendment elevated § 2 s safety by using adopting a effects take a look at, hence casting off the requirement that proof of discriminatory reason is necessary to show a § 2 violation, and with the aid of including § 2(b), which provides steerage approximately the way to observe that take a look at. Had Congress also supposed to exclude judicial elections, it would have made its motive explicit within the statute or diagnosed or noted it within the change s unusually big legislative history. Pp. 501 U. S. 391-396.

    (b) The consequences test is relevant to all § 2 claims. The statutory textual content and this Court s instances foreclose LULAC s analyzing of § 2. If the phrase "representatives" located a restriction on § 2 s coverage for judicial elections, it would exclude all claims involving such elections, for the statute calls for that every one claims must allege an abridgement of the opportunity each to take part inside the political technique and to opt for representatives of 1 s preference. Thus, rather than developing separate and awesome rights, the statute identifies two inextricably related elements of a plaintiff s burden of proof. See, e.g., White v. Regester, 412 U. S. 755. Pp. 501 U. S. 396-398.

    (c) The phrase "representatives" describes the winners of representative, famous elections, which include elected judges. Although LULAC effectively referred to that judges need no longer be elected, whilst they may be, it seems both affordable and practical to characterize the winners as representatives of the districts wherein they live and run. The legislative history provides no support for the arguments that the term "representatives" consists of best legislative and executive officers, or that Congress would have chosen the word "candidates" had it meant to apply the vote dilution prohibition to judicial elections. Pp. 501 U. S. 398-401.

    (d) Adopting respondents view of insurance might result in the anomalous end result that a State included with the aid of § 5 of the Act would be precluded from imposing a brand new balloting procedure having discriminatory outcomes with respect to judicial elections, Clark v. Roemer, 500 U. S. 646, however a in addition discriminatory machine already in location couldn't be challenged under § 2. P. 501 U. S. 401-402.

    (e) That the one-person, one-vote rule is inapplicable to judicial elections, Wells v. Edwards, 409 U. S. 1095, does now not mean that judicial elections are absolutely immune from vote dilution claims. Wells rejected a constitutional declare and, hence, has no relevance to a accurate interpretation of this statute, which turned into enacted to provide extra safety

    Page 501 U. S. 382

    for vote casting rights not safely blanketed by way of the Constitution itself. Cf. City of Rome v. United States, 446 U. S. 156, 446 U. S. 172-183. Pp. 501 U. S. 402-403.

    917 F.second 187 (C.A.five, 1990), reversed and remanded.

    STEVENS, J., introduced the opinion of the Court, in which WHITE, MARSHALL, BLACKMUN, O CONNOR, and SOUTER, JJ., joined. SCALIA, J., filed a dissenting opinion, in which REHNQUIST, C.J., and KENNEDY, J., joined, publish, p. 501 U. S. 404. KENNEDY, J., filed a dissenting opinion, post, p. 501 U. S. 418.

    Page 501 U. S. 383

    JUSTICE STEVENS brought the opinion of the Court.

    The preamble to the Voting Rights Act of 1965 establishes that the relevant reason of the Act is "[t]o enforce the fifteenth amendment to the Constitution of the USA." [Footnote 1] The Fifteenth Amendment gives:

    "The right of residents of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged with the aid of the United States or by way of any State because of race, color, or previous circumstance of servitude."

    U.S.Const., Amdt. 15, § 1. In 1982, Congress amended § 2 of the Voting Rights Act [Footnote 2] to make clean that positive practices and tactics that end result inside the denial or abridgement of the right to vote are forbidden even though the absence of proof of discriminatory reason

    Page 501 U. S. 384

    protects them from constitutional mission. The question offered by using this case is whether this "consequences take a look at" protects the proper to vote in kingdom judicial elections. We maintain that the insurance supplied via the 1982 modification is coextensive with the coverage furnished by using the Act prior to 1982, and that judicial elections are embraced within that insurance.

    I

    Petitioners in No. 90-757 represent a class of about a hundred thirty five,000 black registered citizens in Orleans Parish, Louisiana. App. 6-7, thirteen. They added this motion against the Governor and different nation officers (respondents) to undertaking the technique of electing justices of the Louisiana Supreme Court from the New Orleans place. The United States, petitioner in No. 90-1032, intervened to guide the claims advanced by the plaintiff class.

    The Louisiana Supreme Court consists of seven justices, [Footnote three] five of whom are elected from 5 single-member Supreme Court Districts, and two of whom are elected from one multi-member Supreme Court District. [Footnote four] Each of the seven participants of the court docket have to be a resident of the district from which she or he is elected and need to have resided there for at least two years previous to election. App. to Pet. for Cert. 7a. Each of the justices on the Louisiana Supreme Court serves a time period of 10 years. [Footnote 5] The one multi-member district, the First Supreme Court District, includes the parishes of Orleans, St. Bernard, Plaquemines, and Jefferson. [Footnote 6] Orleans Parish includes about half of the population of the First Supreme Court District and about half of of the registered electorate in that district. Chisom v. Edwards, 839 F.2d 1056, 1057 (CA5 1988). More than one-half of the registered citizens of Orleans Parish are black, whereas extra than 3-fourths of

    Page 501 U. S. 385

    the registered citizens inside the other 3 parishes are white. App. eight.

    Petitioners allege that

    "the existing technique of electing Justices to the Louisiana Supreme Court at-large from the New Orleans place impermissibly dilutes minority balloting energy"

    in violation of § 2 of the Voting Rights Act. Id. at nine. Furthermore, petitioners claimed in the courts underneath that the present day electoral device within the First Supreme Court District violates the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments of the Federal Constitution, because the motive and effect of this election exercise "is to dilute, decrease, and cancel the balloting power" of black voters in Orleans Parish. Ibid. Petitioners are seeking for a remedy that could divide the First District into districts, one for Orleans Parish and the second one for the alternative three parishes. If this treatment have been adopted, the seven individuals of the Louisiana Supreme Court might each constitute a separate single-member judicial district, and each of the two new districts would have about the identical population. Id. at 8. According to petitioners, the brand new Orleans Parish district might also have a majority black populace and majority black voter registration. Id. at eight, 47.

    The District Court granted respondents motion to disregard the criticism. Chisom v. Edwards, 659 F. Supp. 183 (ED La.1987). It held that the constitutional claims had been inadequate due to the fact the criticism did not safely allege a particular rationale to discriminate. Id. at 189. With recognize to the statutory claim, the court held that § 2 isn't always violated except there may be an abridgement of minority citizens possibility "to go with representatives in their desire." Id. at 186-187. The courtroom concluded that, because judges are not "representatives," judicial elections are not protected by using § 2. Id. at 187.

    The Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit reversed. Chisom v. Edwards, 839 F.2nd 1056, cert. denied sub nom. Roemer v. Chisom, 488 U.S. 955 (1988). Before beginning its evaluation, the courtroom remarked that

    "[i]t is mainly considerable

    Page 501 U. S. 386

    that no black man or woman has ever been elected to the Louisiana Supreme Court, either from the First Supreme Court District or from someone of the alternative 5 judicial districts."

    839 F.second at 1058. After agreeing with the lately announced opinion in Mallory v. Eyrich, 839 F.2nd 275 (CA6 1988), it stated that the large definition of the terms "balloting" and "vote" in § 14(c)(1) of the authentic Act expressly protected judicial elections inside the insurance of § 2. [Footnote 7] It additionally identified Congress explicit purpose to expand the insurance of § 2 via enacting the 1982 change. 839 F.second at 1061. [Footnote eight] Consistent with Congress efforts to increase coverage below the Act, the court rejected the State s competition that the term "representatives" in the 1982 change changed into used as a phrase of drawback. Id. at 1063 (describing State s

    Page 501 U. S. 387

    role as "untenable"). Instead, the court docket concluded that representative "denotes all and sundry selected or chosen through famous election from amongst a field of candidates to fill an office, which include judges. " Ibid. (quoting Martin v. Allain, 658 F. Supp. 1183, 1200 (SD Miss.1987)). The court docket buttressed its interpretation with the aid of noting that

    "segment 5 and segment 2, certainly associate sections, perform in tandem to prohibit discriminatory practices in vote casting, whether those practices originate within the past, present, or future."

    839 F.second at 1064. It also gleaned support for its production of § 2 from the truth that the Lawyer General had "continuously supported an expansive, now not restrictive, production of the Act." Ibid. Finally, the courtroom held that the constitutional allegations had been enough to warrant an ordeal, and reinstated all claims. Id. at 1065. [Footnote nine]

    After the case turned into remanded to the District Court, the United States filed a complaint in intervention wherein it alleged that the use of a multi-member district to pick individuals of the Louisiana Supreme Court is a "fashionable, exercise or method" that "results in a denial or abridgment of the right to vote as a result of race or shade in violation of Section 2 of the Voting Rights Act." App. forty eight. After a nonjury trial, however, the District Court concluded that the evidence did not establish a violation of § 2 under the requirements set forth in Thornburg v. Gingles, 478 U. S. 30 (1986).

    Page 501 U. S. 388

    App. to Pet. for Cert. 62a. The District Court also disregarded the constitutional claims. Id. at 63a-64a. Petitioners and the USA appealed. While their attraction turned into pending, the Fifth Circuit, sitting en banc in another case, held that judicial elections have been not included beneath § 2 of the Act as amended. League of United Latin American Citizens Council No. 444 v. Clements, 914 F.2nd 620 (1990) (hereinafter LULAC).

    The majority in LULAC concluded that Congress use of the phrase "representatives" within the word "to go with representatives in their choice" in § 2(b) of the Act indicated that Congress did now not intend to authorize vote dilution claims in judicial elections. The en banc panel reached this conclusion after thinking about (1) the "specific language" of the Amendment, identity. at 624; (2) the man or woman of the judicial workplace, with special emphasis on "the cardinal purpose that judges want now not be elected in any respect," identification. at 622; and (three) the fact that the only-man or woman, one-vote rule have been held inapplicable to judicial elections before 1982, identification. at 626.

    The specific language of § 2 on which the LULAC majority centered gives that a contravention of § 2 is established if the participants of a protected elegance:

    " have much less opportunity than different individuals of the citizens to take part within the political manner and to pick representatives in their desire. "

    Id. at 625 (quoting forty two U.S.C. § 1973(b)). Noting that this language protects both the "the vast and popular opportunity to take part in the political manner and the precise one to select representatives," LULAC, 914 F.2d at 625, the court docket drew a distinction among claims involving tests or other devices that interfere with person participation in an election, on the only hand, and claims of vote dilution that task impairment of a set s opportunity to go with representatives in their desire, however. The majority assumed that the amended § 2 might maintain to apply to judicial elections with recognize to claims within the first

    Page 501 U. S. 389

    class, see ibid., but that the phrase "representatives" excludes judicial elections from claims in the 2d category. See identification. at 625-628.

    In the bulk s view, it turned into "factually false" to represent judges as representatives, due to the fact public opinion is "beside the point to the judge s position," identification. at 622; "the judiciary serves no consultant feature anything: the judge represents no one." Id. at 625. The majority concluded that judicial workplaces "aren't representative ones, and their occupants are not representatives." Id. at 631. Thus, Congress might no longer have used the word "representatives," as it did in § 2(b) of the Act, if it meant that subsection to use to vote dilution claims in judicial elections.

    The majority also assumed that Congress changed into familiar with Wells v. Edwards, 347 F. Supp. 453 (MD La.1972), summarily aff d, 409 U. S. 1095 (1973), a reapportionment case wherein the District Court held that "the concept of 1-man, one-vote apportionment does no longer observe to the judicial department of the authorities." Wells, 347 F. Supp. at 454. The specific reference within the Senate Report to the reality that the

    " precept that the proper to vote is denied or abridged by dilution of voting power derives from the only-character, one-vote reapportionment case of Reynolds v. Sims, [377 U.S. 533 (1964)], "

    LULAC, 914 F.second at 629 (quoting S.Rep. No. 97417, p.19 (1982)), persuaded the bulk that, in mild of the case law preserving that judges have been not representatives within the context of 1-man or woman, one-vote reapportionment cases, see LULAC, 914 F.2nd at 626 (citing instances), Congress would no longer have authorized vote dilution claims in judicial elections with out making an express, unambiguous announcement to that impact.

    Following the en banc decision in LULAC, the Court of Appeals remanded this situation to the District Court with guidelines to brush aside the grievance. 917 F.2nd 187. App. to Pet. for Cert. 1a-3a (per curiam). It expressed no opinion at the strength of petitioners evidentiary case. We granted certiorari, 498

    Page 501 U. S. 390

    U.S. 1060 (1991), and set the case for argument with LULAC, see post at 501 U. S. .

    II

    Our decision these days is confined in individual, and as a result, it's miles useful to begin via figuring out positive subjects that aren't in dispute. No constitutional claims are earlier than us. [Footnote 10] Unlike Wells v. Edwards, [Footnote eleven] White v. Regester, [Footnote 12] and Mobile v. Bolden, [Footnote thirteen] this case affords us completely with a query of statutory production. That query involves simplest the scope of the insurance of § 2 of the Voting Rights Act as amended in 1982. We therefore do not address any question regarding the factors that must be proved to set up a violation of the Act or the remedy that might be suitable to redress a violation if proved.

    It is also undisputed that § 2 carried out to judicial elections previous to the 1982 amendment, [Footnote 14] and that § five of the amended statute keeps to use to judicial elections, see Clark v. Roemer, 500 U. S. 646 (1991). Moreover, there may be no doubt that the phrases "general, exercise, or manner" are extensive enough to embody the usage of multi-member districts to limit a racial minority s potential to influence the final results of an election protected by means of § 2. [Footnote 15] The simplest remember in dispute

    Page 501 U. S. 391

    is whether or not the check for figuring out the legality of such a practice, which become brought to the statute in 1982, applies in judicial elections in addition to in different elections.

    III

    The textual content of § 2 of the Voting Rights Act as at the beginning enacted examine as follows:

    "SEC. 2. No balloting qualification or prerequisite to voting, or wellknown, exercise, or technique will be imposed or carried out by means of any State or political subdivision to disclaim or abridge the right of any citizen of the USA to vote because of race or colour."

    seventy nine Stat. 437. The terms "vote" and "balloting" were defined somewhere else inside the Act to include "all action vital to make a vote powerful in any primary, special, or fashionable election." § 14(c)(1) of the Act, 79 Stat. 445 (emphasis added). The statute in addition defined vote and vote casting as "votes forged with respect to candidates for public or celebration workplace and propositions for which votes are acquired in an election." Ibid.

    Page 501 U. S. 392

    At the time of the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, § 2, unlike different provisions of the Act, did now not provoke sizable debate in Congress, as it turned into viewed largely as a restatement of the Fifteenth Amendment. See H.R.Rep. No. 439, 89th Cong., 1st Sess., 23 (1965), U.S.Code Cong. & Admin.News 1965, pp. 2437, 2454 (§ 2 "offers . . . a right to be loose from enactment or enforcement of balloting qualifications . . . or practices which deny or abridge the right to vote due to race or colour"); see also S.Rep. No. 162, 89th Cong., 1st Sess., pt. 3, pp.19-20 (1965). This Court took a similar view of § 2 in Mobile v. Bolden, 446 U. S. fifty five, 446 U. S. 60-sixty one (1980). There, we identified that the coverage furnished by means of § 2 became actual coextensive with the insurance provided by way of the Fifteenth Amendment; the provision clearly elaborated upon the Fifteenth Amendment. Ibid. Section 2 protected the right to vote, and it did so with out making any distinctions or enforcing any barriers as to which elections might fall inside its purview. As Lawyer General Katzenbach made clear all through his testimony before the House, "[e]very election in which registered electors are accredited to vote would be blanketed" underneath § 2. [Footnote sixteen]

    Page 501 U. S. 393

    The 1965 Act made it unlawful "to disclaim or abridge" the right to vote "because of race or color." seventy nine Stat. 437. Congress amended § 2 in 1975 [Footnote 17] with the aid of expanding the original prohibition against discrimination "due to race or color" to encompass non-English speakme corporations. It did this through replacing "race or coloration" with "race or color, or in contravention of the ensures set forth in segment four(f)(2)" of the Act. 89 Stat. 402. [Footnote 18] The 1982 change in addition accelerated the protection afforded by way of § 2.

    Justice Stewart s opinion for the plurality in Mobile v. Bolden, supra, which held that there has been no violation of both the Fifteenth Amendment or § 2 of the Voting Rights Act absent proof of intentional discrimination, served as the impetus for the 1982 change. One 12 months after the selection in Mobile, Chairman Rodino of the House Judiciary Committee added a invoice to increase the Voting Rights Act and its bilingual requirements, and to amend § 2 through striking out "to deny or abridge" and substituting "in a way which results in a denial or abridgment of." [Footnote 19] The "results" check proposed by way of Chairman Rodino was included into S.1992, [Footnote 20] and ultimately into the 1982 change to § 2, and is now the point of interest of this litigation.

    Page 501 U. S. 394

    Under the amended statute, evidence of rationale is no longer required to show a § 2 violation. Now plaintiffs can succeed under § 2 by using demonstrating that a challenged election practice has resulted in the denial or abridgement of the right to vote primarily based on colour or race. Congress not most effective included the consequences take a look at in the paragraph that previously constituted the complete § 2, however also detailed that paragraph as subsection (a) and delivered a brand new subsection (b) to make clean that an software of the effects check requires an inquiry into "the totality of the circumstances." [Footnote 21] The complete textual content of § 2 as amended in 1982 reads as follows:

    "SEC. 2. (a) No voting qualification or prerequisite to balloting or trendy, practice, or system will be imposed or implemented by means of any State or political subdivision in a way which leads to a denial or abridgement of the right of any citizen of the USA to vote on

    Page 501 U. S. 395

    account of race or color, or in contravention of the guarantees set forth in phase 4(f)(2), as supplied in subsection (b)."

    "(b) A violation of subsection (a) is hooked up if, based totally at the totality of situations, it's miles proven that the political procedures leading to nomination or election in the State or political subdivision are not similarly open to participation via participants of a class of citizens blanketed with the aid of subsection (a) in that its members have much less opportunity than other participants of the voters to take part within the political process and to decide on representatives in their preference. The volume to which contributors of a protected magnificence have been elected to office within the State or political subdivision is one condition which can be considered: Provided, That nothing in this segment establishes a proper to have participants of a blanketed class elected in numbers same to their share inside the population."

    ninety six Stat. 134.

    The purposes of the change are obvious from its text. Section 2(a) adopts a consequences test, as a result providing that proof of discriminatory intent is not important to set up any violation of the section. Section 2(b) gives steerage approximately how the outcomes check is to be implemented.

    Respondents contend, and the LULAC majority agreed, that Congress preference of the word "representatives" inside the word "have less possibility than different individuals of the electorate to take part inside the political method and to choose representatives of their desire" [Footnote 22] in segment 2(b) is proof

    Page 501 U. S. 396

    of congressional reason to exclude vote dilution claims concerning judicial elections from the coverage of § 2. We reject that creation due to the fact we are satisfied that, if Congress had such an intent, Congress would have made it express within the statute, or as a minimum a number of the has memberships could have identified or cited it at some point within the surprisingly sizeable legislative records of the 1982 modification. [Footnote 23] Our end is confirmed whilst we review the reasons provided with the aid of the LULAC majority and respondents in aid of their creation of the statute; we deal with every in their primary contentions in flip.

    IV

    The LULAC majority assumed that § 2 affords two distinct styles of protection for minority voters -- it protects their opportunity "to take part within the political procedure" and their opportunity "to elect representatives of their desire." See LULAC, 914 F.2d at 625. Although the bulk interpreted "representatives" as a word of difficulty, it assumed that the phrase eliminated judicial elections only from the latter safety, with out affecting the previous. Id. at 625, 629. In other words, a wellknown, exercise, or manner in a judicial election, together with a restrict at the times that polls are open, which has a disparate effect on black electorate opportunity to cast their ballots underneath § 2, can be challenged even though a one of a kind exercise that simply impacts their possibility to select representatives of their choice to a judicial workplace might also

    Page 501 U. S. 397

    now not. This studying of § 2, however, is foreclosed via the statutory textual content, and via our earlier instances.

    Any abridgement of the opportunity of individuals of a protected class to participate in the political procedure inevitably impairs their capacity to steer the outcome of an election. As the statute is written, but, the lack of ability to select representatives of their choice isn't sufficient to establish a violation unless, beneath the totality of the instances, it is able to additionally be said that the individuals of the protected elegance have less possibility to participate within the political method. The statute does now not create separate and distinct rights. Subsection (a) covers each utility of a qualification, widespread, practice, or method that results in a denial or abridgement of "the right" to vote. The singular form is also used in subsection (b) whilst relating to an harm to contributors of the included elegance who have much less "opportunity" than others "to participate inside the political procedure and to choose representatives in their preference." 42 U.S.C. § 1973 (emphasis brought). It might distort the plain that means of the sentence to replacement the phrase "or" for the word "and." Such radical surgery would be required to split the opportunity to participate from the opportunity to opt for. [Footnote 24]

    The statutory language is patterned after the language utilized by JUSTICE WHITE in his critiques for the Court in White v. Regester, 412 U. S. 755 (1973), and Whitcomb v. Chavis, 403 U. S. 124 (1971). See n. 22 supra. In both evaluations, the Court identified the possibility to participate and the opportunity to opt for as inextricably connected. In White v. Regester, the Court described the relationship as follows:

    "The plaintiffs burden is to supply proof . . . that its individuals

    Page 501 U. S. 398

    had much less opportunity than did other citizens in the district to participate inside the political methods and to decide on legislators in their desire."

    412 U.S. at 412 U. S. 766 (emphasis delivered). And earlier, in Whitcomb v. Chavis, the Court described the plaintiffs burden as entailing a showing that they "had less opportunity than did different . . . residents to participate inside the political approaches and to decide on legislators of their preference." 403 U.S. at 403 U. S. 149 (emphasis brought). [Footnote 25]

    The outcomes test mandated by the 1982 change is relevant to all claims springing up below § 2. If the word "representatives" did area a restriction on the insurance of the Act for judicial elections, it would exclude all claims involving such elections from the safety of § 2. For all such claims should allege an abridgement of the possibility to take part inside the political procedure and to select representatives of one s preference. Even if the know-how of Solomon would guide the LULAC majority s idea to preserve claims based on an interference with the right to vote in judicial elections while eschewing claims based at the opportunity to decide on judges, we have no authority to divide a unitary declare created by using Congress.

    V

    Both respondents and the LULAC majority area their foremost reliance on Congress use of the word "representatives" rather than "legislators" within the phrase "to take part inside the political method and to go with representatives of their choice." 42 U.S.C. § 1973. When Congress borrowed the word from White v. Regester, it replaced "legislators" with "representatives." [Footnote 26] This substitution indicates, at the very

    Page 501 U. S. 399

    least, that Congress intended the amendment to cover more than legislative elections. Respondents argue, and the majority agreed, that the time period "representatives" turned into used to increase § 2 coverage to government officials, however now not to judges. We suppose, but, that the higher studying of the word "representatives" describes the winners of representative, famous elections. If executive officials, including prosecutors, sheriffs, kingdom legal professionals popular, and state treasurers, may be taken into consideration "representatives" absolutely due to the fact they are chosen through famous election, then the identical reasoning should observe to elected judges. [Footnote 27]

    Respondents advise that, if Congress had meant to have the statute s prohibition against vote dilution practice to the election of judges, it would have used the phrase "candidates" in place of "representatives." Brief for Respondents 20, and n. 9. But that confuses the everyday that means of the words.

    Page 501 U. S. 400

    The phrase "representative" refers to someone who has prevailed in a famous election, whereas the phrase "candidate" refers to a person who is searching for an workplace. Thus, a candidate is nominated, now not elected. When Congress used "candidate" in different elements of the statute, it did so exactly because it became regarding those who were aspirants for an workplace. See, e.g., 42 U.S.C. § 1971(b) ("any candidate for the office of President"), § 1971(e) ("applicants for public workplace"), § 1973i(c) ("any candidate for the office of President"), § 1973i(e)(2) ("any candidate for the office of President"), § 1973l(c) ("candidates for public or celebration workplace"), § 1973ff-2 ("In the case of the offices of President and ice President, a vote for a named candidate"), § 1974 ("candidates for the office of President"), § 1974e ("applicants for the workplace of President").

    The LULAC majority turned into, of route, entirely accurate in gazing that "judges want now not be elected at all," 914 F.2nd at 622, and that, ideally, public opinion must be irrelevant to the judge s position, because the judge is regularly called upon to brush aside, or maybe to defy, famous sentiment. The Framers of the Constitution had a similar knowledge of the judicial function, and, accordingly, they established that Article III judges might be appointed, rather than elected, and might be sheltered from public opinion via receiving lifestyles tenure and earnings protection. Indeed, these perspectives were normally shared through the States throughout the early years of the Republic. [Footnote 28] Louisiana, but, has chosen a different route. It has decided to elect its judges and to compel judicial candidates to vie for famous aid just as different political candidates do.

    The essential tension among the appropriate person of the judicial office and the real international of electoral politics cannot be resolved by crediting judges with general indifference to the popular will at the same time as simultaneously requiring them to run for

    Page 501 U. S. 401

    elected workplace. [Footnote 29] When each of numerous contributors of a courtroom have to be a resident of a separate district, and should be elected by means of the citizens of that district, it appears both reasonable and practical to signify the winners as representatives of that district. Indeed, at one time, the Louisiana Bar Association characterized the members of the Louisiana Supreme Court as representatives for this reason:

    "Each justice and judge now in workplace shall be taken into consideration as a representative of the judicial district inside that's situated the parish of his house at the time of his election. [Footnote 30]"

    Louisiana should, of course, exclude its judiciary from the insurance of the Voting Rights Act with the aid of converting to a gadget wherein judges are appointed, and in that way, it is able to allow its judges to be detached to famous opinion. The motives why Louisiana has chosen in any other case are exactly the motives why it's miles appropriate for § 2, as well as § five, of the Voting Rights Act to retain to use to its judicial elections.

    The near connection between § 2 and § five similarly undermines respondents view that judicial elections have to not be protected below § 2. Section five calls for certain States to post adjustments of their balloting approaches to the District Court of the District of Columbia or to the Lawyer General for preclearance. Section 5 uses language similar to that of § 2

    Page 501 U. S. 402

    in defining prohibited practices: "any vote casting qualification or prerequisite to vote casting, or preferred, practice, or method with respect to voting." 42 U.S.C. § 1973c. This Court has already held that § five applies to judicial elections. Clark v. Roemer, 500 U. S. 646 (1991). If § 2 did not practice to judicial elections, a State blanketed with the aid of § 5 could be precluded from imposing a new voting procedure having discriminatory results with recognize to judicial elections, whereas a similarly discriminatory machine already in place could not be challenged below § 2. It is not likely that Congress intended such an anomalous end result.

    VI

    Finally, both respondents and the LULAC majority propose that no judicially plausible standards for determining vote dilution claims can be usual except the same old is based totally on the only-individual, one-vote principle. [Footnote 31] They reason that, because we have held the one-individual, one-vote rule inapplicable to judicial elections, see Wells v. Edwards, 409 U. S. 1095 (1973), aff g 347 F. Supp. at 454, it follows that judicial elections are absolutely immune from vote dilution

    Page 501 U. S. 403

    claims. The end, but, does not observe from the idea.

    The keeping in Wells rejected a constitutional assignment based on the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. It has no extra relevance to a correct interpretation of this statute than does our choice in Mobile v. Bolden, 446 U. S. fifty five (1980), which additionally rejected a constitutional declare. The statute turned into enacted to defend voting rights that aren't properly included by way of the Constitution itself. Cf. City of Rome v. United States, 446 U. S. 156, 446 U. S. 172-183 (1980). The widespread that must be carried out in litigation below § 2 isn't always at trouble right here. [Footnote 32] Even if serious problems lie beforehand in making use of the "totality of instances" defined in § 2(b), that venture, hard as it could prove to be, can't justify a judicially created limitation on the insurance of the broadly worded statute, as enacted and amended via Congress.

    VII

    Congress enacted the Voting Rights Act of 1965 for the huge remedial reason of "rid[ding] the usa of racial discrimination in vote casting." South Carolina v. Katzenbach, 383 U. S. 301, 383 U. S. 315 (1966). In Allen v. State Board of Elections, 393 U. S. 544, 393 U. S. 567 (1969), we stated that the Act must be interpreted in a manner that gives "the broadest viable scope" in combatting racial discrimination. Congress amended the Act in 1982 to be able to relieve plaintiffs of the load of proving discriminatory reason, after a plurality of this Court had concluded that the authentic Act, like the

    Page 501 U. S. 404

    Fifteenth Amendment, contained this type of requirement. See Mobile v. Bolden, 446 U. S. fifty five (1980). Thus, Congress made clean that a violation of § 2 may be mounted with the aid of evidence of discriminatory outcomes on my own. It is tough to accept as true with that Congress, in an express attempt to increase the safety afforded by means of the Voting Rights Act, withdrew, with out comment, an crucial class of elections from that safety. Today we reject such an anomalous view, and preserve that country judicial elections are included inside the ambit of § 2 as amended.

    The judgment of the Court of Appeals is reversed and the case is remanded for in addition complaints consistent with this opinion.

    It is so ordered.

    [Footnote 1]

    Pub.L. 89-110, 79 Stat. 437, 42 U.S.C. § 1973 et seq. (1964 ed., Supp. I).

    [Footnote 2]

    Section 2 of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, as amended, now reads:

    "Sec. 2. (a) No voting qualification or prerequisite to voting or wellknown, practice, or process shall be imposed or applied by way of any State or political subdivision in a way which leads to a denial or abridgement of the proper of any citizen of the United States to vote because of race or shade, or in contravention of the ensures set forth in section four(f)(2), as provided in subsection (b)."

    "(b) A violation of subsection (a) is hooked up if, primarily based at the totality of occasions, it's far proven that the political procedures main to nomination or election within the State or political subdivision aren't similarly open to participation by individuals of a category of citizens blanketed via subsection (a) in that its contributors have much less opportunity than other contributors of the voters to participate inside the political process and to elect representatives in their preference. The volume to which participants of a covered elegance have been elected to office within the State or political subdivision is one condition which may be considered: Provided, That nothing on this section establishes a proper to have individuals of a included elegance elected in numbers equal to their proportion inside the population."

    96 Stat. 134.

    [Footnote 3]

    La.Const., Art. five, § three; La.Rev.Stat.Ann. § thirteen:one zero one (West 1983).

    [Footnote four]

    La.Const., Art. five, § 22(A); La.Rev.Stat.Ann. § thirteen:one hundred and one (West 1983).

    [Footnote 5]

    La.Const., Art. 5, § 3.

    [Footnote 6]

    La.Const., Art. 5, § four; La.Rev.Stat.Ann. § 13:one zero one (West 1983).

    [Footnote 7]

    "Section 14(c)(1), which defines balloting and vote for purposes of the Act, units forth the varieties of election practices and elections that are encompassed inside the regulatory sphere of the Act. Section 14(c)(1) states,"

    "The phrases vote or balloting shall include all motion vital to make a vote effective in any number one, special, or trendy election, consisting of, however not constrained to, registration, list pursuant to this subchapter or other movement required with the aid of law prerequisite to vote casting, casting a ballot , and having such ballot counted nicely and covered in the proper totals of votes forged with admire to applicants for public or birthday celebration office and propositions for which votes are received in an election."

    "Clearly, judges are applicants for public or birthday party workplace elected in a number one, unique, or preferred election; consequently, phase 2, by way of its express phrases, extends to country judicial elections. This clearly is the best creation regular with the apparent language of the Act."

    Chisom v. Edwards, 839 F.second at 1059-1060.

    [Footnote 8]

    "It is difficult, if now not not possible, for this Court to conceive of Congress, in an explicit try to amplify the insurance of the Voting Rights Act, to have in reality amended the Act in a manner affording minorities less safety from racial discrimination than that furnished by way of the Constitution. . . . [S]ection 2 necessarily embraces judicial elections inside its scope. Any different production of section 2 might be fully inconsistent with the apparent language of the Act and the express reason which Congress sought to achieve in amending section 2; this is, to increase the safety of the Act."

    Id. at 1061.

    [Footnote 9]

    After remand, however earlier than trial, plaintiffs (right here petitioners) moved for a initial injunction, enjoining the October 1, 1988, election for one of the two Louisiana Supreme Court seats from the First Supreme Court District. The District Court granted plaintiffs movement, having located that they glad the 4 factors required for injunctive remedy. Chisom v. Edwards, 690 F. Supp. 1524, 1531 (ED La.1988). The Court of Appeals, but, vacated the preliminary injunction and ordered that the election proceed as scheduled. Chisom v. Roemer, 853 F.second 1186, 1192 (CA5 1988). It reasoned that, if the election had been enjoined, the ensuing uncertainty could have a deleterious impact at the Louisiana Supreme Court and the administration of justice that might outweigh any capacity harm plaintiffs might go through if the election went forward. Id. at 1190-1192.

    [Footnote 10]

    Petitioners did now not are seeking evaluate in this Court of the disposition in their constitutional claims. Brief for Petitioners 8, n. 2; Brief for United States 4, n. 2; Tr. of Oral Arg. 27.

    [Footnote eleven]

    409 U. S. 1095 (1973), aff g 347 F. Supp. 453 (MD La.1972) (whether or not election of State Supreme Court Justices by means of district violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment).

    [Footnote 12]

    412 U. S. 755 (1973) (whether or not population differential amongst districts set up a prima facie case of invidious discrimination under the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment).

    [Footnote thirteen]

    446 U. S. 55 (1980) (whether at-large gadget of municipal elections violated black electorate rights under the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments).

    [Footnote 14]

    See Brief for Respondents 16; Tr. of Oral Arg. 42.

    [Footnote 15]

    In Gomillion v. Lightfoot, 364 U. S. 339 (1960), the Court held that a Local Act redefining the boundaries of the city of Tuskegee, Alabama, violated the Fifteenth Amendment. In his opinion for the Court, Justice Frankfurter wrote:

    "The opposite conclusion, entreated upon us by means of respondents, might sanction the achievement with the aid of a State of any impairment of vote casting rights something so long because it turned into cloaked inside the clothing of the realignment of political subdivisions."

    Id. at 364 U. S. 345.

    "A statute which is claimed to have worked unconstitutional deprivations of petitioners rights isn't proof against attack clearly because the mechanism employed via the legislature is a redefinition of municipal limitations. According to the allegations here made, the Alabama Legislature has now not simply redrawn the Tuskegee city limits with incidental inconvenience to the petitioners; it is extra accurate to say that it has deprived the petitioners of the municipal franchise and consequent rights, and, to that end, it has incidentally modified the town s obstacles. While in shape that is merely an act redefining metes and boundaries, if the allegations are set up, the inescapable human impact of this essay in geometry and geography is to despoil colored citizens, and most effective coloured residents, in their theretofore loved balloting rights."

    Id. at 364 U. S. 347.

    [Footnote sixteen]

    Hearings on H.R. 6400 and Other Proposals To Enforce the fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution of the USA earlier than Subcommittee No. 5 of the House Committee at the Judiciary, 89th Cong., 1st Sess., 21 (1965).

    [Footnote 17]

    Pub.L. ninety four-73, 89 Stat. four hundred.

    [Footnote 18]

    The 1975 modification added a brand new subsection to § 4 of the Act. The new subsection reads in component as follows:

    "(f)(1) The Congress reveals that balloting discrimination in opposition to residents of language minorities is pervasive and countrywide in scope. Such minority residents are from environments wherein the dominant language is other than English. . . ."

    "(2) No voting qualification or prerequisite to vote casting, or widespread, practice, or procedure shall be imposed or implemented with the aid of any State or political subdivision to disclaim or abridge the right of any citizen of the US to vote because he is a member of a language minority organization."

    89 Stat. 401.

    [Footnote 19]

    H.R. 3112, 97th Cong., 1st Sess. (1981) (emphasis added).

    [Footnote 20]

    "The goals of S.1992, as amended, are as follows: (1) to extend the present coverage of the special provisions of the Voting Rights Act, Sections four, 5, 6, 7 and eight; (2) to amend Section four(a) of the Act to permit man or woman jurisdictions to fulfill a brand new, broadened standard for termination of coverage with the aid of the ones special provisions; (three) to amend the language of Section 2 so that it will sincerely set up the requirements supposed by way of Congress for proving a contravention of that segment; (4) to extend the language-assistance provisions of the Act till 1992; and (5) to feature a brand new segment touching on vote casting assistance for citizens who're blind, disabled, or illiterate."

    * * * *

    "S.1992 amends Section 2 of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 to prohibit any vote casting exercise, or procedure [that] outcomes in discrimination. This amendment is designed to make clean that evidence of discriminatory intent isn't always required to establish a contravention of Section 2. It thereby restores the prison requirements, based on the controlling Supreme Court precedents, which applied in balloting discrimination claims previous to the litigation concerned in Mobile v. Bolden. The change additionally provides a new subsection to Section 2 which delineates the legal standards under the effects test by using codifying the leading pre-Bolden vote dilution case, White v. Regester."

    "This new subsection provides that the problem to be decided beneath the results check is whether the political procedures are similarly open to minority voters. The new subsection also states that the segment does no longer set up a right to proportional representation."

    S.Rep. No. 97417, p. 2 (1982), U.S.Code Cong. & Admin.News 1982, pp. 177-179 (footnotes neglected).

    [Footnote 21]

    "The modification to the language of Section 2 is designed to make clean that plaintiffs want now not prove a discriminatory motive in the adoption or preservation of the challenged machine of exercise to be able to establish a violation. Plaintiffs need to either show such motive, or, rather, need to show that the challenged machine or exercise, in the context of all of the circumstances inside the jurisdiction in query, outcomes in minorities being denied identical get admission to to the political manner."

    "The results fashionable is meant to restore the pre-Mobile criminal fashionable which governed instances difficult election systems or practices as an illegal dilution of the minority vote."

    Id. at 27 (footnote left out). See also Thornburg v. Gingles, 478 U. S. 30, 478 U. S. 83-84 (1986) (O CONNOR, J., concurring in judgment) ("Amended § 2 is supposed to codify the outcomes test employed in Whitcomb v. Chavis, 403 U. S. 124 (1971), and White v. Regester, 412 U. S. 755 (1973), and to reject the `purpose check propounded in the plurality opinion in Mobile v. Bolden, 446 U. S. fifty five (1980)").

    [Footnote 22]

    The phrase is borrowed from JUSTICE WHITE s opinion for the Court in White v. Regester, 412 U. S. 755 (1973), which predates Mobile v. Bolden, 446 U. S. fifty five (1980). Congress defined that its reason in including phase 2(b) became to "embod[y] the test laid down by means of the Supreme Court in White." S.Rep. No. 97-417, at 27, U.S.Code Cong. & Admin.News 1982, p. 205. In White, the Court said that the

    "plaintiffs burden is to provide evidence . . . that [the minority group s] participants had much less possibility than did different residents in the district to participate in the political approaches and to pick legislators in their desire."

    412 U.S. at 412 U. S. 766.

    [Footnote 23]

    Congress silence in this regard may be likened to the canine that did not bark. See A. Doyle, Silver Blaze, in The Complete Sherlock Holmes 335 (1927). Cf. Harrison v. PPG Industries, Inc., 446 U. S. 578, 446 U. S. 602 (1980) (REHNQUIST, J., dissenting) ("In a case where the development of legislative language along with this makes so sweeping and so extraordinarily unorthodox a trade as that made right here, I think judges in addition to detectives may take into consideration the reality that a watchdog did not bark within the night"). See additionally American Hospital Assn. v. NLRB, 499 U. S. 606 (1991).

    [Footnote 24]

    The dissent argues that our literal analyzing of the phrase "and" ends in the realization that a small minority has no safety in opposition to infringements of its right "to take part within the political process" because it will usually lack the numbers vital "to pick its candidate," post at 501 U. S. 409. This argument, but, rests on the misguided assumption that a small group of electorate can by no means have an effect on the final results of an election.

    [Footnote 25]

    See additionally Reynolds v. Sims, 377 U. S. 533, 377 U.S. 565 (1964) ("Full and effective participation with the aid of all residents in state authorities calls for, therefore, that each citizen have an similarly effective voice inside the election of individuals of his kingdom legislature").

    [Footnote 26]

    The word "representatives," rather than "legislators," became protected in Senator Robert Dole s compromise, which became designed to soothe the fears of these Senators who considered the House s version, H.R. 3112, as an invitation for proportional representation and electoral quotas. Senator Dole defined that the compromise became supposed each to embody the perception

    "that a balloting practice or system that's discriminatory in end result must no longer be allowed to face, no matter whether or not there exists a discriminatory purpose or intent"

    and to

    "delineat[e] what felony general have to observe beneath the consequences take a look at and clarif[y] that it isn't always a mandate for proportional illustration."

    Hearings on S. 53 et al. before the Subcommittee on the Constitution of the Senate Committee at the Judiciary, 97th Cong., second Sess., 60 (1982). Thus, the compromise became now not intended to exclude any elections from the insurance of subsection (a), but in reality to make clear that the effects check does now not require the proportional election of minority applicants in any election.

    [Footnote 27]

    Moreover, this Court has lately identified that judges do have interaction in policymaking at a few level. See Gregory v. Ashcroft, publish at 501 U. S. 466-467 ("It may be sufficient that the appointee is in a function requiring the exercising of discretion concerning issues of public significance. This really describes the bench, regardless of whether or not judges is probably considered policymakers within the identical feel as the government or legislature"). A judge brings to his or her activity of deciphering texts "a well-considered judgment of what's best for the network." Id. at 501 U. S. 466. As the concurrence notes, Justice Holmes and Justice Cardozo each wrote eloquently about the "policymaking nature of the judicial feature." Id. at 501 U. S. 482 (WHITE, J., concurring in part, dissenting in part, and concurring in judgment).

    [Footnote 28]

    See generally Winters, Selection of Judges -- An Historical Introduction, forty four Texas L.Rev. 1081, 1082-1083 (1966).

    [Footnote 29]

    "Financing a campaign, soliciting votes, and attempting to set up charisma or name identification are, a minimum of, unseemly for judicial applicants"

    due to the fact "it's miles the business of judges to be indifferent to popularity." Stevens, The Office of an Office, Chicago Bar Rec. 276, 280, 281 (1974).

    [Footnote 30]

    Louisiana State Law Institute, Project of a Constitution for the State of Louisiana with Notes and Studies 1039 (1954) (1921 Report of the Louisiana Bar Association submitted to the Louisiana Constitutional Convention). The editors of the assignment explained that they protected the 1921 Report due to the fact,

    "at the foremost issues involved in revising the judicial provisions of the existing constitution, it offers many proposals that, even after the passage of thirty years, still benefit critical consideration. Of specific interest are the strategies for the selection, retirement and removal of judges. . . ."

    Id. at 1035.

    [Footnote 31]

    The "one-character, one-vote" precept changed into first set forth in Gray v. Sanders, 372 U. S. 368, 372 U. S. 379, 372 U. S. 381 (1963):

    "Once the geographical unit for which a consultant is to be selected is detailed, all who participate within the election are to have an identical vote -- whatever their race, whatever their intercourse, something their profession, whatever their earnings, and wherever their home can be in that geographical unit. This is needed via the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment."

    * * * *

    "The idea of political equality from the Declaration of Independence, to Lincoln s Gettysburg Address, to the Fifteenth, Seventeenth, and Nineteenth Amendments can mean simplest one aspect -- one character, one vote."

    Since then, the rule has been interpreted to intend that "everyone s vote counts as a good deal, insofar as it's far potential, as any other man or woman s." Hadley v. Junior College District, 397 U. S. 50, 397 U. S. fifty four (1970).

    [Footnote 32]

    We observe, however, that an evaluation of a proper statutory popular under § 2 want no longer depend upon the only-person, one-vote constitutional rule. See Thornburg v. Gingles, 478 U.S. at 478 U. S. 88-89 (O CONNOR, J., concurring in judgment); see additionally White v. Regester, 412 U. S. 755 (1973) (protecting that multi-member districts were invalid, however compliance with one-individual, one-vote rule). Moreover, Clark v. Roemer, 500 U. S. 646 (1991), the case in which we held that § 5 applies to judicial elections, was a vote dilution case. The reasoning within the dissent, see put up at 501 U. S. 413-416 if valid, might have led to a distinct bring about that case.

    JUSTICE SCALIA, with whom THE CHIEF JUSTICE and JUSTICE KENNEDY be part of, dissenting.

    Section 2 of the Voting Rights Act isn't some all-cause weapon for well-intentioned judges to wield as they please in the conflict in opposition to discrimination. It is a statute. I notion we had followed a everyday approach for decoding the which means of language in a statute: first, locate the ordinary that means of the language in its textual context; and second, the usage of hooked up canons of creation, ask whether or not there's any clean indication that some permissible meaning aside from the everyday one applies. If not -- and especially if an awesome reason for the normal which means seems simple -- we observe that everyday meaning. See, e.g., West Virginia University Hospitals, Inc. v. Casey, 499 U. S. eighty three, 499 U. S. 98-ninety nine (1991); Demarest v. Manspeaker, 498 U. S. 184, 498 U. S. one hundred ninety (1991); United States v. Ron Pair Enterprises, Inc., 489 U. S. 235, 489 U. S. 241 (1989); Pennsylvania Dept. of Public Welfare v. Davenport, 495 U. S. 552, 495 U. S. 552 (1990); Caminetti v. United States, 242 U. S. 470, 242 U. S. 485 (1917); Public Citizen v. Department of Justice, 491 U. S. 440, 491 U. S. 470 (1989) (KENNEDY, J., concurring in judgment).

    Page 501 U. S. 405

    Today, however, the Court adopts a way quite out of accord with that normal exercise. It starts offevolved not with what the statute says, however with an expectation about what the statute have to imply absent particular phenomena ("we are convinced that, if Congress had . . . an intent [to exclude judges], Congress would have made it explicit inside the statute, or at least a number of the has memberships would have identified or cited it sooner or later in the strangely good sized legislative history," ante at 501 U. S. 396 (emphasis brought)); and the Court then translates the words of the statute to meet its expectation. Finding nothing in the legislative history asserting that judges were excluded from the insurance of § 2, the Court offers the phrase "to go with representatives" the quite outstanding meaning that covers the election of judges.

    As approach, that is simply backwards, and however a great deal we can be attracted by using the end result it produces in a particular case, we need to in each case withstand it. Our activity starts offevolved with a text that Congress has passed and the President has signed. We are to examine the words of that text as any normal has club of Congress might have study them, see Holmes, The Theory of Legal Interpretation, 12 Harv.L.Rev. 417 (1899), and observe the meaning so determined. In my view, that reading exhibits that § 2 extends to vote dilution claims for the elections of representatives handiest, and judges aren't representatives.

    I

    As the Court indicates, the 1982 amendments to the Voting Rights Act have been adopted in response to our decision in City of Mobile v. Bolden, 446 U. S. fifty five (1980), which had held that the scope of the authentic Voting Rights Act was coextensive with the Fifteenth Amendment, and as a consequence proscribed intentional discrimination handiest. I consider the Court that that original rules, directed toward intentional discrimination, applied to all elections, for it simply said so:

    "No vote casting qualification or prerequisite to vote casting, or widespread, practice, or technique shall be imposed or implemented

    Page 501 U. S. 406

    by using any State or political subdivision to disclaim or abridge the proper of any citizen of the USA to vote attributable to race or color."

    79 Stat. 437.

    The 1982 amendments, but, noticeably converted the Act. As currently written, the statute proscribes intentional discrimination best if it has a discriminatory effect, however proscribes practices with discriminatory effect, whether or no longer intentional. This new "effects" criterion provides a effective, albeit every now and then blunt, weapon with which to attack even the most subtle types of discrimination. The query we confront here is how broadly the new remedy applies. The foundation of the Court s analysis, the itinerary for its adventure inside the wrong course, is the subsequent assertion:

    "It is hard to trust that Congress, in an specific attempt to broaden the protection afforded through the Voting Rights Act, withdrew, without comment, an crucial class of elections from that protection."

    Ante at 501 U. S. 404. There are two matters incorrect with this. First is the notion that Congress cannot be credited with having executed whatever of principal significance by way of without a doubt announcing it, in normal language, in the text of a statute, "with out comment" within the legislative history. As the Court colorfully places it, if the dog of legislative history has now not barked, not anything of outstanding importance will have transpired. Ante at 501 U. S. 396, n. 23. Apart from the questionable expertise of assuming that puppies will bark while some thing important is taking place, see 1 T. Livius, The History of Rome 411-413 (1892) (D. Spillan translation), we've got forcefully and explicitly rejected the Conan Doyle approach to statutory construction within the past. See Harrison v. PPG Industries, Inc., 446 U. S. 578, 446 U. S. 592 (1980) ("In ascertaining the which means of a statute, a court can not, within the way of Sherlock Holmes, pursue the concept of the dog that did not bark"). We are here to use the statute, not legislative records, and genuinely no longer the absence of legislative history. Statutes are the regulation although napping dogs lie. See, e.g., Sedima, S.P.R.L. v. Imrex Co., 473 U. S. 479, 473 U. S. 495-496, n. 13

    Page 501 U. S. 407

    (1985); Williams v. United States, 458 U. S. 279, 458 U. S. 294-295 (1982) (MARSHALL, J., dissenting).

    The extra critical errors in the Court s starting-factor, however, is the idea that the impact of aside from judges from the revised § 2 could be to "withdr[aw] . . . an vital category of elections from [the] safety [of the Voting Rights Act]." Ante at 501 U. S. 404. There is without a doubt no question right here of taking flight safety. Since the pre-1982 content of § 2 became coextensive with the Fifteenth Amendment, the entirety of that safety subsisted within the Constitution, and could be enforced via the alternative provisions of the Voting Rights Act. Nothing was lost from the prior insurance; all of the new "results" safety become an upload-on. The trouble is not, consequently, because the Court would have it, ante at 501 U. S. 395-396, whether or not Congress has cut lower back at the coverage of the Voting Rights Act; the issue is how a ways it has prolonged it. Thus, even though a court s expectancies had been a right basis for decoding the textual content of a statute, while there might be cause to expect that Congress changed into not "taking flight" safety, there's no particular motive to assume that the supplemental protection it supplied was any greater sizable than the text of the statute said.

    What it stated, with admire to organising a contravention of the amended § 2, is the following:

    "A violation . . . is mounted if . . . it's far shown that the political techniques leading to nomination or election . . . aren't similarly open to participation by way of participants of a [protected] elegance . . . in that its participants have less opportunity than different members of the electorate to participate within the political system and to opt for representatives in their choice."

    42 U.S.C. § 1973(b) (emphasis added). Though this newsletter nowhere speaks of "vote dilution," Thornburg v. Gingles, 478 U. S. 30 (1986), understood it to proscribe practices which produce that result, identifying because the statutory basis for a dilution declare the second of the 2

    Page 501 U. S. 408

    phrases highlighted above -- "to decide on representatives in their preference." [Footnote 2/1] Under this interpretation, the opposite highlighted phrase -- "to participate in the political manner" -- is left for different, non-dilution § 2 violations. If, as an example, a county permitted vote registration for handiest 3 hours at some point per week, and that made it greater difficult for blacks to sign up than whites, blacks would have less possibility "to take part within the political process," than whites, and § 2 could consequently be violated -- despite the fact that the number of capacity black citizens was so small that they might, on no speculation, have the ability to select their own candidate, see Blumstein, Proving Race Discrimination, 69 Va.L.Rev. 633, 706-707 (1983).

    The Court, however, now rejects Thornburg s reading of the statute, and asserts that, earlier than a violation of § 2 may be made out, both conditions of § 2(b) must be met. As the Court explains,

    "As the statute is written, . . . the incapability to select representatives in their desire isn't enough to set up a

    Page 501 U. S. 409

    violation except, beneath the totality of the occasions, it can additionally be said that the contributors of the protected elegance have much less opportunity to take part within the political process. The statute does no longer create two separate and wonderful rights. . . . It could distort the plain which means of the sentence to alternative the word or for the word and. Such radical surgical operation would be required to split the opportunity to take part from the possibility to decide on."

    Ante at 501 U. S. 397. This is definitely wrong. If both conditions should be violated before there is any § 2 violation, then minorities who form one of these small part of the voters in a selected jurisdiction that they might on no potential foundation "opt for representatives in their preference" would be absolutely with out § 2 safety. Since, because the Court s analysis indicates, the "effects" check of § 2 judges a contravention of the "to opt for" provision on the premise of whether the practice in query prevents actual election, then a protected elegance that without or with the practice can be unable to opt for its candidate may be denied same possibility "to participate in the political procedure" with impunity. The Court feels compelled to attain this unbelievable end of a "singular right" because the "to participate" clause and the "to choose" clause are joined by the conjunction "and." It is unclear to me why the policies of English utilization require that end right here, any more than they do inside the case of the First Amendment -- which reads

    "Congress shall make no law . . . abridging . . . the right of the humans peaceably to gather, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances."

    This has no longer usually been thought to defend the right peaceably to collect simplest while the motive of the meeting is to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. So additionally right here, one is deprived of an equal "opportunity . . . to participate . . . and to select" if both the possibility to take part or the opportunity to pick is unequal. The point is, in any event, not vital to the prevailing case -- and it's miles sad to peer the Court repudiate

    Page 501 U. S. 410

    Thornburg, create such mischief in the software of § 2, and even forged doubt upon the First Amendment, simply to deprive the State of the argument that elections for judges continue to be included by using § 2 despite the fact that they may be no longer subject to vote dilution claims. [Footnote 2/2]

    The Court, petitioners, and petitioners amici have labored mightily to establish that there is a which means of "representatives" that could consist of judges, see, e.g., Brief for Lawyers Committee for Civil Rights as Amicus Curiae 10-11, and no question there may be. But our task isn't to scavenge the arena of English usage to discover whether or not there's any viable which means of "representatives" which suits our preconception that the statute includes judges; our process is to determine whether or not the ordinary which means includes them, and if it does now not, to ask whether or not there may be any strong indication inside the text or shape of the statute that something aside from ordinary which means was supposed.

    There is no doubt that the normal that means of "representatives" does no longer consist of judges, see Webster s Second New International Dictionary 2114 (1950). The Court s feeble argument to the contrary is that "representatives" way individuals who "are selected by famous election." Ante at 501 U. S. 399. On that speculation, the fan-elected contributors of the baseball All-Star teams are "representatives" -- rarely a not unusual, if even a permissible, utilization. Surely the word "consultant" connotes one who is not simplest elected via the human beings, but who also, at a minimal, acts on behalf of the human beings. Judges do that in a sense -- however no longer in the regular experience. As the captions of the pleadings in some States nonetheless show, it's far

    Page 501 U. S. 411

    the prosecutor who represents "the People"; the decide represents the Law -- which often calls for him to rule towards the People. It is exactly because we do not mainly conceive of judges as representatives that we held judges now not inside the Fourteenth Amendment s requirement of "one individual, one vote." Wells v. Edwards, 347 F. Supp. 453 (MD La.1972), aff d, 409 U. S. 1095 (1973). The point isn't always that a State could not make judges in some senses representative, or that every one judges have to be conceived of inside the Article III mildew, but as a substitute, that giving "representatives" its ordinary meaning, the ordinary speaker in 1982 might now not have carried out the phrase to judges, see Holmes, The Theory of Legal Interpretation, 12 Harv.L.Rev. 417 (1899). It stays handiest to ask whether there is ideal indication that normal meaning does now not follow.

    There is one canon of construction that might be relevant to the prevailing case which, in some situations, would counter ordinary that means -- but here it would simplest have the impact of reinforcing it. We implemented that canon to another case this Term, regarding, interestingly sufficient, the very identical trouble of whether kingdom judges are included by means of the provisions of a federal statute. In Gregory v. Ashcroft, put up, p. 501 U. S. 452, we say that, unless it was clean that the term "appointee[s] at the policymaking degree" did not include judges, we'd construe it to include them, because the contrary creation might reason the statute to intervene upon the shape of state government, setting up a federal qualification for kingdom judicial office. Such intrusion, we stated, requires a "plain announcement" before we are able to acknowledge it. See also Will v. Michigan Dept. of State Police, 491 U. S. 58, 491 U. S. sixty five (1989); Atascadero State Hospital v. Scanlon, 473 U. S. 234, 473 U. S. 242 (1985); Pennhurst State School and Hospital v. Halderman, 465 U. S. 89, 465 U. S. ninety nine (1984). If the equal principle have been implemented here, we might have double purpose to present "representatives" its everyday meaning. It is true, however, that, in Gregory, deciphering the statute to include judges might have made them the best excessive-stage kingdom

    Page 501 U. S. 412

    officers affected, while here the question is whether judges were excluded from a standard imposition upon nation elections that truthfully exists; and, in Gregory, it became questionable whether or not Congress turned into invoking its powers underneath the Fourteenth Amendment (instead of simply the Commerce Clause), while here it is obvious. Perhaps those elements suffice to differentiate the 2 cases. Moreover, we tacitly rejected a "plain declaration" rule as applied to the unamended § 2 in City of Rome v. United States, 446 U. S. 156, 446 U. S. 178-one hundred eighty (1980), although arguably that turned into earlier than the guideline had advanced the significance it presently has. I am content material to dispense with the "plain announcement" rule inside the present case, cf. Pennsylvania v. Union Gas Co., 491 U. S. 1, 491 U.S. forty one-forty two (1989) (opinion of SCALIA, J.) -- however it says some thing about the Court s technique to nowadays s choice that the opportunity of making use of that rule by no means crossed its thoughts.

    While the "simple statement" rule may not be relevant, there is usually nothing anything that points inside the opposite course, indicating that the normal that means right here have to not be carried out. Far from that, in my view, the everyday meaning of "representatives" offers clear cause to congressional movement that otherwise might seem unnecessary. As an preliminary matter, it is glaring that Congress paid precise attention to the scope of elections protected by the "to go with" language. As the Court shows, that language, for the most component, tracked this Court s opinions in White v. Regester, 412 U. S. 755, 412 U. S. 766 (1973), and Whitcomb v. Chavis, 403 U. S. 124, 403 U. S. 149 (1971), but the word "legislators" turned into now not copied. Significantly, it turned into replaced not with the greater fashionable time period "applicants" used again and again some place else within the Act, see, e.g., 42 U.S.C. §§ 1971(b), (e); 1973i(c), 1973l(c); 1973ff-2; 1974; 1974e, however with the term "representatives," which seems nowhere else inside the Act (besides as a right noun regarding has memberships of the federal lower House, or designees of the Lawyer General). The ordinary which means of this term is broader than "legislators" (it consists of, as an example, faculty

    Page 501 U. S. 413

    forums and metropolis councils in addition to senators and representatives), but narrower than "candidates."

    The Court says that the seemingly sizable refusal to apply the term "candidate" and selection of the distinct time period "consultant" are actually inconsequential, due to the fact "candidate" could not have been used. According to the Court, considering that "candidate" refers to person who has been nominated however now not yet elected, the word "to pick candidates" might be a contradiction in terms. Ante at 501 U. S. 399-400. The simplest flaw on this argument is that it is not proper, as repeated usage of the method "to choose candidates" by this Court itself amply demonstrates. See, e.g., Davis v. Bandemer, 478 U. S. 109, 478 U. S. 131 (1986); Rogers v. Lodge, 458 U. S. 613, 458 U. S. 624 (1982); id. at 458 U. S. 639, n. 18, 458 U. S. 641, n. 22, 458 U. S. 649 (STEVENS, J., dissenting); City of Mobile v. Bolden, 446 U.S. at 446 U. S. seventy five; United Jewish Organizations of Williamsburgh, Inc. v. Carey, 430 U. S. a hundred and forty four, 430 U. S. 158 (1977); Moore v. Ogilvie, 394 U. S. 814, 394 U. S. 819 (1969); Allen v. State Board of Elections, 393 U. S. 544, 393 U. S. 569 (1969). We even used the phrase again and again in Thornburg. Thornburg v. Gingles, 478 U.S. at 478 U. S. forty, 478 U. S. 44, 478 U. S. 50, 478 U. S. 54, 478 U. S. eighty; id. at 478 U. S. 86, 478 U. S. 103 (O CONNOR, J., concurring in judgment); identification. at 478 U. S. 107 (opinion of STEVENS, J.). And the word is used inside the Complaint of the minority plaintiffs inside the different § 2 case decoded today. Houston Lawyers Assn. v. Lawyer General of Texas, post, p. 501 U. S. 419. App. in Nos. ninety-813, ninety-974, p. 22a. In other phrases, a ways from being an impermissible choice, "candidates" could were the natural choice, even if it had now not been used repeatedly elsewhere in the statute. It is quite absurd to think that Congress went out of its manner to update that term with "representatives," that allows you to convey what "applicants" evidently indicates (viz., insurance of all elections) and what "representatives" clearly does now not.

    A second attention confirms that "representatives" in § 2 turned into meant in its regular experience. When given its everyday meaning, it causes the statute to reproduce an established,

    Page 501 U. S. 414

    eminently logical, and possibly almost imperative quandary upon the supply of vote dilution claims. Whatever different requirements may be relevant to elections for "representatives" (within the experience of individuals who are not handiest elected by using but act on behalf of the voters), the ones elections, not like elections for all workplace-holders, should be carried out in accordance with the same safety precept of "one character, one vote." And it so occurs -- greater than coincidentally, I suppose -- that in each case in which, prior to the modification of § 2, we diagnosed the possibility of a vote dilution claim, the principle of "one character, one vote" changed into applicable. See, e.g., Fortson v. Dorsey, 379 U. S. 433, 379 U. S. 436 (1965); Burns v. Richardson, 384 U. S. seventy three, 384 U. S. 88 (1966); Whitcomb v. Chavis, supra, 403 U.S. at 403 U. S. 149-one hundred fifty; White v. Regester, supra, 412 U.S. at 412 U. S. 765-767; see also Davis v. Bandemer, 478 U. S. 109, 478 U. S. 131-132 (1986). Indeed, it is the principle of "one individual, one vote" that gives which means to the idea of "dilution." One s vote is diluted if it isn't always, because it need to be, of the same practical effect as each person else s. Of route the mere truth that an election practice satisfies the constitutional requirement of "one man or woman, one vote" does not set up that there was no vote dilution for Voting Rights Act functions, seeing that that appears now not merely to equality of man or woman votes, however also to equality of minority blocs of votes. (White itself, which treated a multi-member district, demonstrates this factor. See additionally City of Mobile v. Bolden, supra, 446 U.S. at 446 U. S. 65.) But "one person, one vote" has been the basis and the vital circumstance of a vote dilution declare, because it establishes the baseline for computing the voting strength that the minority bloc need to have. As we've got counseled, the primary question in a dilution case is whether the "one man or woman, one vote" preferred is met, and if it's miles, the second one is whether balloting structures nonetheless perform to "limit or cancel out the vote casting strength of racial or political factors of the balloting population. " Burns v. Richardson, supra, 384 U.S. at 384 U. S. 88. See additionally Note, Fair and Effective Voting Strength Under Section 2 of the Voting Rights Act: The

    Page 501 U. S. 415

    Impact of Thornburg v. Gingles on Minority Vote Dilution Litigation, 34 Wayne L.Rev. 303, 323-324 (1987).

    Well earlier than Congress amended § 2, we had held that the precept of "one character, one vote" does now not follow to the election of judges, Wells v. Edwards, 347 F. Supp. 453 (MD La.1972), aff d, 409 U. S. 1095 (1973). If Congress become (through use of the extremely inapt word "representatives") making vote dilution claims to be had with admire to the election of judges, it become, for the primary time, extending that remedy to a context in which "one character, one vote" did now not observe. That could had been a big exchange in the regulation, and, given the want to perceive some other baseline for computing "dilution," that is an issue which those who agree with in barking puppies should be astounded to find unmentioned in the legislative history. If "representatives" is given its normal meaning, on the other hand, there may be no alternate within the law (except elimination of the cause requirement), and the silence is completely comprehensible.

    I frankly find it very hard to conceive how it's far to be determined whether "dilution" has occurred, as soon as one has eliminated each the requirement of real cause to disfavor minorities and the precept that 10,000 minority votes all through the State ought to have as plenty practical "electability" effect as 10,000 nonminority votes. How does one begin to determine, in the sort of system, how an awful lot elective strength a minority bloc ought to have? I do not assert that it's far entirely not possible to impose "vote dilution" regulations upon an electoral regime that isn't primarily based at the "one individual, one vote" precept. Congress can define "vote dilution" to be some thing it'll, inside constitutional bounds. But my factor is that "one character, one vote" is inherent in the normal concept of "vote dilution," and became an crucial element of the preexisting, judicially crafted definition beneath § 2; that Congress did no longer adopt any new definition; that growing a brand new definition is a seemingly standardless task; and that the word Congress selected ("consultant") appears especially designed

    Page 501 U. S. 416

    to keep away from those troubles. The Court is stoic about the issue of defining "dilution" without a widespread of purity, expressing its resolve to rise up to that onerous duty inescapably thrust upon it:

    "Even if serious issues lie beforehand in applying the totality of the situations described in § 2(b), that challenge, tough as it is able to show to be, cannot justify a judicially created problem on the insurance of the broadly worded statute, as enacted and amended by means of Congress."

    Ante at 501 U. S. 403. One would assume that Congress had said "applicants," as opposed to "representatives." In truth, but, it is the Court, instead of Congress, that leads us -- quite unnecessarily and certainly with cussed staying power -- into this morass of unguided and possibly unguidable judicial interference in democratic elections. The Court attributes to Congress no longer best the motive to intend some thing apart from what it stated, however also the rationale to permit district courts invent (for there is no precedent wherein "one individual, one vote" did no longer practice that Congress might have been consulting) what inside the global constitutes dilution of a vote that does not must be identical.

    Finally, the Court suggests that there may be something "anomalous" about extending insurance beneath § five of the Voting Rights Act to the election of judges, at the same time as not extending insurance below § 2 to the equal elections. Ante at 501 U. S. 402. This actually misconceives the distinctive roles of § 2 and § five. The latter calls for positive jurisdictions to preclear changes in election strategies earlier than those adjustments are implemented; it's miles a way of assuring earlier the absence of all electoral illegality, no longer simplest that which violates the Voting Rights Act however that which violates the Constitution as properly. In my view, judges are within the scope of § 2 for nondilution claims, and as a result for those claims, § 5 preclearance could implement the Voting Rights Act with appreciate to judges. Moreover, intentional discrimination in the election of judges, anything its shape, is constitutionally prohibited, and the preclearance provision of § 5 gives the authorities a method via which to save you

    Page 501 U. S. 417

    that. The scheme makes complete feel without the need to convey judges within the "to opt for" provision.

    All that is enough to persuade me that there's sense to the ordinary meaning of "consultant" in § 2(b) -- that there's reason to Congress s desire -- and for the reason that there may be, then, under our ordinary presumption, that ordinary that means prevails. I would examine § 2 as extending vote dilution claims to elections for "representatives," however no longer to elections for judges. For different claims underneath § 2, however -- the ones resting on the "to participate inside the political procedure" provision, instead of the "to choose" provision -- no similar restrict would apply. Since the claims right here are completely claims of dilution, I might verify the judgment of the Fifth Circuit.

    * * * *

    As I said on the outset, this situation is ready method. The Court transforms the which means of § 2 now not due to the fact the everyday that means is irrational, or inconsistent with other parts of the statute, see, e.g., Green v. Bock Laundry, 490 U. S. 504, 490 U. S. 510-511 (1989); Public Citizen v. Department of Justice, 491 U.S. at 491 U. S. 470 (KENNEDY, J., concurring in judgment), but because it does not match the Court s theory of what Congress ought to have had in thoughts. When we adopt a method that psychoanalyzes Congress, as opposed to reads its legal guidelines, when we hire a tinkerer s toolbox, we do high-quality harm. Not most effective will we reach the wrong end result with admire to the statute at hand, but we poison the properly of destiny law, depriving legislators of the warranty that everyday terms, used in an normal context, can be given a predictable meaning. Our highest responsibility inside the subject of statutory construction is to read the legal guidelines in a consistent way, giving Congress a certain way by way of which it can work the people s will. We have disregarded that duty today. I respectfully dissent.

    Page 501 U. S. 418

    [Footnote 2/1]

    As the Gingles Court mentioned, the plaintiffs allegation turned into

    "that the redistricting scheme impaired black residents ability to decide on representatives in their preference in violation of . . . § 2 of the Voting Rights Act,"

    478 U.S. at 478 U. S. 35. See additionally id. at 478 U. S. forty six, n. 12 ("The claim we address on this opinion is . . . that their capacity to select the representatives of their desire turned into impaired by using the selection of a multi-member electoral shape"). And as we defined the requirement for recuperation within the case:

    "Minority voters who contend that the multi-member shape of districting violates § 2 must show that the usage of a multi-member electoral shape operates to reduce or cancel out their ability to select their desired applicants."

    Id. at 478 U. S. 48 (emphasis brought). While disagreeing with the Court s method of a treatment, the concurrence acknowledged that this shape underlay the Court s analysis, declaring that, in the Court s view,

    "minority voting power is to be assessed entirely in phrases of the minority organization s potential to decide on candidates it prefers. . . . Under this method, the essence of a vote dilution claim is that the State has created single-member or multi-member districts that unacceptably impair the minority organization s capacity to go with the applicants its contributors opt for."

    Id. at 478 U. S. 88 (emphasis brought and deleted).

    [Footnote 2/2]

    The Court denies this conclusion follows, because, as it claims, it "rests on the erroneous assumption that a small organization of voters can in no way impact the outcome of an election." Ante at 501 U. S. 397 n. 24. I make no such assumption. I most effective anticipate that, by "to elect," the statute does no longer suggest "to persuade," just as I anticipate that, by using "representatives," the statute does not imply "judges." We do now not reject Conan Doyle s approach of statutory interpretation most effective to embrace Lewis Carroll s.

    JUSTICE KENNEDY, dissenting.

    I join JUSTICE SCALIA s dissent in complete. I write to add best that the issue before the Court is one in all statutory production, now not constitutional validity. Nothing in these days s decision addresses the query whether § 2 of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, as interpreted in Thornburg v. Gingles, 478 U. S. 30 (1986), is regular with the requirements of the USA Constitution.

    Oral Argument - April 22, 1991
    Opinion Announcement - June 20, 1991
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